Hellenistic Kingdoms


History of the Hellenistic Kingdoms


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Perspective


The history of the Hellenistic Kingdoms stretches from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC to the emergence of the Roman Empire. This happened after Octavian’s victory in the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE and after the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt a year later. The Greek word “Hellas” was the ancient name of Greece, and that gives us the word “Hellenistic”, which refers to the influence of Greek culture in the areas that had been conquered by Alexander the Great several hundred years earlier.

During the Hellenistic period, Greek influence dominated the trade, politics, and cultures of the Mediterranean world and most of West and Central Asia, even parts of India. There, it fostered prosperity and progress in many of the arts, including astrology, exploration, literature, drama, architecture, music, mathematics, and philosophy, and in science as well. And as with many periods of creativity amidst instability, it thrived as an era of decadence or degeneration. This was seen in its arts, which flourished with the advent of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the compilation of the Septuagint, and philosophy enriched by Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Pyrrhonism. Science was advanced by Euclid’s geometry and the many talents of the polymath Archimedes. Religion combined new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis with ancient eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele, and it blended Hellenistic culture with Buddhism in Bactria and Northwest India.

After Alexander the Great’s invasion of the Persian Empire in 330 BC and its downfall shortly thereafter, Hellenistic kingdoms were created throughout southwest Asia. These included the Seleucid Empire and Kingdom of Pergamon; north-east Africa (Egypt’s Kingdom of the Ptolemies); and South Asia (the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Kingdoms of Central Asia). As a result, a new wave of Greek colonization seeded Greek cities and kingdoms throughout Asia and Africa, and Greek culture and language spread as far as India. The indigenous cultures of the Hellenistic kingdoms adopted local practices where expedient, and Hellenistic culture became a fusion of the ancient Greek world with the cultures of Western Asian, Northeastern Africa, and Southwestern Asia.


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Index

Hellenistic Kingdoms Index | Society: Class WarCommunitiesEducationSexualityWomen | Culture: ArtsArchitectureBuildingsSecularization | Historiography: Polybius : Writings | Learning | Literature: DramaPoetryProse | Minor Arts | Music | Philosophy: Epicureanism: Epicurus | Skepticism: CarneadesLyceumPyrrho | Stoicism: Zeno of Citium | Scholarship: Libraries Joshua Ben Sirach | Science and Technology: AnatomyAstronomy: AristarchusHipparchus | Botany | Geography | Mathematics: ApolloniusEuclid | Mechanical Engineering: ArchimedesCtesebius | Medicine: MagicSchools | Physiology | Sculpture: CentersStatuary | Religion: Mystery ReligionsPhilosophy | Power: ChaosAntigonus IILeaguesRevolution in Sparta | Rhodes | Roman Conquest: GovernanceGreeceHannibalIllyria | Economy: AgricultureIndustryLaborTrade: Goods | Egypt: SocietyAlexandria: LayoutLibrary of AlexandriaMusaeumPopulation | Egypt: ReligionPower | Judea: SocietyCultureReligionPower: Antiochus IVMaccabean Dynasty | Pergamon: Power | Seleucia: SocietyPowerAntiochus III Antiochus IVCapitalsProgressionSeleucusEconomy




history of the Hellenistic Kingdoms | class war

Society: Class War

Hellenistic Kingdoms | education

Society: Education

history of the Hellenistic Kingdoms | sexuality

Society: Sexuality

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women in the Hellenistic Kingdoms

Society: Women

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | culture

Culture

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | arts

Culture: Arts

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | architecture

Culture: Architecture

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | architecture | secularization

Architecture: Secularization

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history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | historiography | Polybius

Historiography: Polybius

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | historiography | Polybius | writings

Polybius: Writings

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | learning

Culture: Learning

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | literature

Culture: Literature

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | literature | drama

Literature: Drama

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history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | poetry

Literature: Poetry

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | prose

Literature: Prose

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | music

Culture: Music

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | painting

Culture: Painting

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy

Culture: Philosophy

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history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | Epicureanism

Philosophy: Epicureanism

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy| Epicurus

Epicureanism: Epicurus

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | Skepticism

Philosophy: Skepticism

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | Skepticism | Carneades

Skepticism: Carneades

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | Lyceum

Skepticism: Lyceum

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | Pyrrho

Skepticism: Pyrrho

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history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | Stoicism

Philosophy: Stoicism

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | Zeno of Citium

Stoicism: Zeno of Citium

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | scholarship

Culture: Scholarship

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | libraries

Scholarship: Libraries

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | scholarship | Joshua Ben Sirach

Scholarship: Joshua Ben Sirach

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | science and technology

Culture: Science and Technology

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history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | philosophy | anatomy

Science and Technology: Anatomy

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | astronomy

Science and Technology: Astronomy

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | astronomy | Aristarchus

Astronomy: Aristarchus

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | astronomy | Hipparchus

Astronomy: Hipparchus

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | botany

Science and Technology: Botany

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | geography

Science and Technology: Geography

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history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | mathematics

Science and Technology: Mathematics

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | mathematics | Apollonius

Mathematics: Apollonius

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | mathematics | Euclid

Mathematics: Euclid

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | mechanical engineering

Science and Technology: Mechanical Engineering

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | mechanical engineering | Ctesebius

Mechanical Engineering: Ctesebius

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | medicine

Medicine

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | magic and medicine

Medicine: Magic

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | schools of medicine

Medicine: Schools

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | physiology

Science and Technology: Physiology

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | religion

Religion

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | mystery religions

Religion: Mystery Religions

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | religion and philosophy

Religion: Philosophy

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | power

Power

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Antigonus II

Power: Antigonus II

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Rhodes

Power: Rhodes

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Roman conquest

Power: Roman Conquest

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | industry

Economy: Industry

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | labor

Economy: Labor

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | trade

Economy: Trade

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Egypt

Egypt

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Egypt | society

Egypt: Society

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Alexandria

Society: Alexandria

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Library of Alexandria

Alexandria: Library of Alexandria

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Musaeum

Alexandria: Musaeum

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Egypt | religion

Egypt: Religion

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Judea

Judea

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Judea | culture

Judea: Culture

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | power

Judea: Power

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Maccabean Dynasty

Power: Maccabean Dynasty

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Antiochus III

Power: Antiochus III

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Antiochus IV

Power: Antiochus IV

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Seleucia | capitals

Power: Seleucia: Capitals

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Seleucia | progression of power

Power: Progression

history of Ancient Greece | Hellenistic Kingdoms | Seleucia | Seleucus

Power: Seleucus

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Samples



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