Ancient Near East

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History of the Ancient Near East

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Perspective


The history of the Ancient Near East is not of one civilization, but of many. Among these are the lesser known civilizations of Armenia, the Hittites, the Lydians, and Phrygians. Then there was Phoenicia, a nation of traders who brought the beginnings of our alphabet to Greece. And there was Sumer, which gave us writing. Brutish Assyria gave the Near East a legacy of brutality. But Babylonia’s King Hammurabi gave us a comprehensive body of law that anticipated many of the precepts of Western law.

While Hammurabi’s Code provided the beginnings of the Western legal tradition, Islam answered to the call of the Prophet Muhammed, and it grew to become an empire that stretched from Spain to Samarkand. Nowhere is the glory of Islam more evident than in its mosques (though the iconic Hagia Sophia in Istanbul was actually a creation of the Roman emperor Justinian). What’s more, Islam’s scientific genius enabled great advances in medicine and optics. And, its literary and philosophical ethos kept alive the giants of Western philosophy while Europe slumbered through its Dark Ages. Fro this, the empire of Islam gave rise to the ponderous Ottoman Empire that would bring Suleiman the Great to the gates of Vienna, and endure until the end of World War I.

Judea gave us Jerusalem, the locus of each of the region’s main religions of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity (whose adherents once shared the city in relative peace and harmony). As a province of the Roman Empire, Judea became troublesome and it rebelled against Rome, leading to the destruction of Jerusalem’s magnificent Temple. Jesus of Nazareth would prove no less nettlesome to Rome.

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Index

Near East: Index | Society | Culture | Economy | Armenia | Akkad |
Assyria: SocietyCitiesClassCultureReligionPowerBureaucracyGovernanceLawMilitaryEconomyAgricultureIndustryTrade | Babylonia: SocietyCultureArchitectureArtLanguageLiteratureMusicScience and TechnologyReligionDeitiesFunerary CustomsMagicMagic and the Evil EyeMythCreation MythEvil EyePersonal ReligionTemplesTemple WealthPowerInvasionCode of Hammurabi: JusticeLawsCommerceMarriage and FamilyEconomyAgricultureBusiness DocumentsConstructionFinanceLaborMiningTradeTransport | Hittite Empire: SocietyCulturePower | Islam: CulturePhilosophyScience and TechnologyPre-Islamic ReligionPower: RiseGovernanceAbbasid CaliphateDeclineUmayyad Caliphate | Judea: SocietyOriginsPeople of AbrahamWomenSexualityMarriageFamilyHellenistic Judea: CultureLiteratureReligionJudaism: People of the Book GenesisProphetsJeremiahIsaiahMosaic CodeJerusalemTemple of JerusalemTextsHebrew BiblePowerBabylonian CaptivityReformEconomy | Lydia: CulturePower | Mesopotamia: Society: AdornmentFamilyFoodMoralsWomenCulture: Architecture: Temples | EducationAstronomyMathematicsMedicineEconomyNations | Palestine: Society | Phoenicia: SocietyCommunitiesCultureReligionEconomyIndustryTrade | Phrygia: Religion | Scythia | Sumer: SocietyCities: FeaturesFirst CitiesDressPeopleClassCulture: ArchitectureLearningLiteratureScience and TechnologySpreadWritingLegacyReligion: BeliefsDeitiesTemplesPowerGovernanceEconomy: AgricultureTradeWealth | Syria


History of the Ancient Near East


history of the Ancient Near East

Ancient Near East: Index

society of the Ancient Near East

Society

history of the Ancient Near East | culture

Culture

economy of the Ancient Near East

Economy

Armenia


history of the Ancient Near East | Armenia

Armenia

Akkad


history of Akkad

Akkad

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Assyria


history of the Ancient Near East | Assyria

Assyria: Index

society of Assyria

Society

history of the Ancient Near East | Assyria | cities

Society: Cities

social class in Assyria

Society: Class

history of the Ancient Near East | Assyria | culture

Culture

religion in Assyria

Religion

Up to Index

history of the Ancient Near East | Assyria | power

Power

bureaucracy in Assyria

Power: Bureaucracy

history of the Ancient Near East | Assyria | governance

Power: Governance

law in Assyria

Power: Law

history of the Near East | Assyria | military

Power: Military

economy of Assyria

Economy

history of the Ancient Near East | Assyria | economy | agriculture

Economy: Agriculture

industry in Assyria

Economy: Industry

history of the Ancient Near East | Assyria | economy | trade

Economy: Trade

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Babylonia


history of Babylonia

Babylonia: Index

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | society

Society

culture in Babylonia

Culture

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | architecture

Culture: Architecture

art in Babylonia

Culture: Art

Up to Index

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | language

Culture: Language

literature in Babylonia

Culture: Literature

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | music

Culture: Music

science and technology in Babylonia

Culture: Science and Technology

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | religion

Religion

deities of Babylonia

Religion: Deities

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history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | funerary customs

Religion: Funerary Customs

magic in Babylonia

Magic

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | Evil Eye

Magic and the Evil Eye

myth in Babylonia

Religion: Myth

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | creation myth

Myth: Creation

personal religion in Babylonia

Religion: Personal Religion

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history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | temples

Religion: Temples

temple wealth in Babylonia

Temples: Wealth

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | power

Power

invasions of Babylonia

Power: Invasion

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | Code of Hammurabi

Law: Code of Hammurabi

justice in the Code of Hammurabi

Code of Hammurabi: Justice

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history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | Code of Hammurabi | laws

Code of Hammurabi: Laws

commerce and the Code of Hammurabi

Code of Hammurabi: Commerce

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | Code of Hammurabi | marriage and family

Code of Hammurabi: Marriage and Family

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | economy

Economy

Babylonian agriculture

Economy: Agriculture

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | business documents

Economy: Business Documents

Up to Index

construction in Babylonia

Economy: Construction

Babylonian finance

Economy: Finance

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | labor

Economy: Labor

Babylonian mining

Economy: Mining

history of the Ancient Near East | Babylonia | trade

Economy: Trade

Babylonian transport

Economy: Transport

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Hittite Empire

history of the Ancient Near East | Hittite Empire

Hittite Empire: Index

Hittite Empire society

Society

history of the Ancient Near East | Hittite Empire | culture

Culture

Hittite Empire power

Power

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Islam


history of the Ancient Near East | Islam

Islam: Index

Islamic culture

Culture

history of the Ancient Near East | Islam | philosophy

Philosophy

Islamic science and technology

Science and Technology

history of the Ancient Near East | Islam | pre-Islamic religion

Religion: Pre-Islamic Religion

power in ancient Islam

Power

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history of the Ancient Near East | Islam | rise of Islam

Power: Rise of Islam

Islamic governance

Power: Governance

history of the Ancient Near East | Islam | Abbasic Caliphate

Power: Abbasid Caliphate

decline of the Abbasid Caliphate

Abbasid Caliphate: Decline

history of the Ancient Near East | Islam | Umayyad Caliphate

Umayyad Caliphate

Judea


ancient Judea

Judea: Index

Up to Index

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | society

Society

ancient Judea origins

Society: Origins

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | people of Abraham

Society: People of Abraham

women in ancient Judea

Society: Women

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | sexuality

Society: Sexuality

marriage in ancient Judea

Society: Marriage

Up to Index

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | family

Society: Family

Hellenistic Judea

Society: Hellenistic Judea

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | culture

Culture

literature in ancient Judea

Culture: Literature

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | religion

Religion

Judaism in ancient Judea

Religion: Judaism

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history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | People of the Book

Religion: People of the Book

Genesis in ancient Judea

People of the Book: Genesis

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | prophets

Religion: Prophets

prophet Jeremiah

Prophets: Jeremiah

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | Isaiah

Prophets: Isaiah

Mosaic Code

Judaism: Mosaic Code

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history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | Jerusalem

Judaism: Jerusalem

Temple of Jerusalem

Judaism: Temple of Jerusalem

history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | texts

Judaism: Texts

Hebrew Bible

Texts: Hebrew Bible


history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | power

Power

Babylonia Captivity

Power: Babylonian Captivity

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history of the Ancient Near East | Judea | reform

Power: Reform

economy of ancient Judea

Economy

Lydia



history of the Ancient Near East | Lydia

Lydia: Index

culture in Lydia

Culture

power in Lydia

Power

Mesopotamia


history of the Ancient Near East | Lydia | Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia: Index

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adornment in Mesopotamia

Society: Adornment

history of the Ancient Near East | Mesopotamia | family

Society: Family

food in Mesopotamia

Society: Food

history of the Ancient Near East | Mesopotamia  | Morals

Society: Morals


Mesopotamian women

Society: Women

history of the Ancient Near East | Mesopotamia | architecture

Culture: Architecture

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Mesopotamian temples

Architecture: Temples

history of the Ancient Near East | Mesopotamia | education

Culture: Education

Mesopotamian astronomy

Science and Technology: Astronomy

history of the Ancient Near East | Mesopotamia | mathematics

Science and Technology: Mathematics

Mesopotamian medicine

Science and Technology: Medicine

history of the Ancient Near East | Mesopotamia | economy

Economy

Up to Index

Mesopotamian nations

Nations

Palestine


History of the Ancient Near East | Palestine

Palestine: Index

Palestine society

Society

Phoenicia


Phoenicia

Phoenicia: Index

History of the Ancient Near East | Phoenicia | society

Society

Phoenician communities

Society: Communities

Up to Index

History of the Ancient Near East | Phoenicia | culture

Culture

Phoenician religion

Religion

History of the Ancient Near East | Phoenicia | economy

Economy

industry in Phoenicia

Economy: Industry

History of the Ancient Near East | Phoenicia | trade

Economy: Trade

Phrygia


Phrygia

Phrygia: Index

Up to Index

History of the Ancient Near East | Phrygia | religion

Religion

Scythia


Scythia

Scythia

Sumer


history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer

Sumer: Index

society in Sumer

Society

cities in Sumer

Society: Cities


history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | cities | features

Cities: Features

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first cities of Suner

Cities: First Cities

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | dress

Society: Dress

Sumerian people

Society: People

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | class

Society: Class

Sumerian culture

Culture

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | architecture

Culture: Architecture

Up to Index

learning in Sumer

Culture: Learning

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | literature

Culture: Literature

Sumerian science and technology

Culture: Science and Technology

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | spread of culture

Culture: Spread

writing in Sumer

Culture: Writing

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | legacy

Culture: Legacy

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Sumerian religion

Religion

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | beliefs

Religion: Beliefs

Sumerian deities

Religion: Deities

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | temples

Religion: Temples

Sumerian power

Power

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | governance

Power: Governance

Up to Index

Sumerian economy

Economy

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | agriculture

Economy: Agriculture

history of the Ancient Near East | Sumer | trade

Economy: Trade

Sumerian wealth

Economy: Wealth

Syria


history of the Ancient Near East | Syria

Syria

Up to Index

Samples

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