Society in Ancient Greece
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The history of society in ancient Greece stretches from its Dark Ages of the 12th through the 9th century BCE to the end of its Classical Era in the 4th century BC. Politically, Greece comprised an informal league of city-states and their surrounding territories. But these were unified only once (for 13 years) under Alexander the Great.
Several hundred years after the collapse in 1000 BC of the Bronze Age civilization of Mycenae in the Peloponnesus, Greek city-states began to take root. This marked the beginning of the Archaic era and of the colonization by Greece of southern Italy and the eastern Mediterranean Basin. Classical Greece endured from the time of the wars with Persia to the 4th century BCE. As a result of the campaigns of Alexander the Great (from 334 to 323 BC), Hellenistic civilization came to flourish throughout the Near East to Central Asia and India. But the Hellenistic kingdoms in the eastern Mediterranean were then conquered by the Roman Republic, and the Greek provinces of Macedonia and Achaea were annexed during the Roman Empire. In the development of Western civilization, Classical Greece was followed by the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine Empire.
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Character • Childhood • Games and Toys • Infanticide • Class War: Mitigation • Second Phase • Wages • Death • Education • Higher Education • Physical Training • Family • Home • Cooking • Drinking • Furniture • Housing • Men • Women • Inequity • Morality • Charity • Population • Sexuality • Prostitution • Slavery: Ethos • Slave Trade • Style • Adornment • Jewelry • Cosmetics • Dress • Hair • Hygiene | City-States | Regions: Argos • Athens: Society | Attica | Boeotia | Corinth: Power | Cyclades Islands: Culture | Epidaurus | Euboea | Ionia: Chios • Colophon • Ephesus • Priene • Samos • Teos • Heraclitus the Obscure | Megara | Miletus: Society • Culture: Literature • Anaximander | Trade | Sicily: Hieron II | Sikyon | Sparta: Society • Children • Class • Environment • Marriage • Spartan Code • Men • Culture • Music • Musicians | Power: Archaic Era • Empire • Persian Civil War: Cyrus the Younger | Law | Thessaly
Class War: Second Phase
Class War: Wages
Education: Higher Education
Slavery: Slave Trade
Cyclades Islands: Culture
Ionia: Philosophy: Heraclitus the Obscure
Sicily: Power: Hieron II
Society: Spartan Code
Power: Archaic Era
Power: Persian Civil War
Persian Civil War: Cyrus the Younger