America 1877-1900

History of America 1877 – 1900

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Perspective


The history of America 1877-1900 is the history of the Gilded Age, an era of robust economic growth, especially in the northern and western states. The term “Gilded Age” was used by writer Mark Twain to characterize this era of profound social problems masked by a thin gold veneer. It describes an era of abject poverty and inequality, especially for the millions of impoverished immigrants who poured into the United States. Their lives were lived in stark contrast to those of the robber baron industrialists and financiers who were emboldened by this culture of greed and corruption in their quest for profits.

Industrialization demanded an ever-increasing pool of cheap labor, and this need was met by the influx of millions of European immigrants. As railroads became the leading growth industry, factories, the mining industry, and high finance also grew quickly. Rapid growth out West, in farming, ranching, and mining, was hastened by immigration. This in turn led to the growth of labor unions grew in the expanding industrial cities, and strikes were increasingly contentious. Then, the financial upheavals of the Panic of 1873 and the Panic of 1893 brought economic and political turmoil. Also, the South remained shattered after the Civil War, and its economy suffered from low prices for cotton and tobacco. What’s more, nearly all African Americans living in the South were denied the vote and existed in a continuing state of poverty, oppression, and terror.

The political landscape was notoriously corrupt, though voter participation was avid. The controversies were social (prohibition of alcohol, universal education, race and ethnicity) and economic (tariff protection and the supply of gold and silver). Ward bosses took control of city politics, and powerful trusts controlled industries. In response, unions agitated for an eight-hour workday, better workplace conditions, and the abolition of child labor. At the same time, others demanded civil service reform, prohibition of the manufacture and sale of alcohol, and the vote for women. Local governments provided public elementary education, and public high schools began to be built. In all, the problems faced by the poor gave rise to reforms in the Progressive Era that followed.

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Index

1877-1900 Index | Society: Reform: ReformersImmigrationMovements: Settlement MovementSocial Gospel Movement | New South: CitiesRural Areas | Culture: ArtLearningLiteraturePhilosophy: Gospel of Wealth | Science and Technology | Power: PresidentsElection of 1896Political Parties CongressLegislationIssues: Civil ServiceBusiness and IndustryCurrency | Local Politics: Issues | Rural Politics | Ward Bosses | Foreign Affairs | Economy: Agriculture: The FarmInnovationsGreat Plains: Settlement BoomChallenges | Economy: California | Industry | Natural Resources | Ranching | Trade | Rural Discontent | Farmers’ Alliances | Capitalism: Depression of 1893Social Darwinism TrustsMuck-RakersChurches | Labor: Artisans and Skilled WorkersFactory SystemWorkers: Unions: American Federation of Labor | Child Labor WomenImmigrants


America 1877-1900

1877-1900: Index

history of America 1877-1900 | society

Society

history of America 1877-1900 | immigration

Society: Immigration

history of America 1877-1900 | reform

Society: Reform

history of America 1877-1900 | reformers

Society: Reformers

history of America 1877-1900 | movements

Society: Movements

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Settlement Movement

Settlement Movement

Social Gospel Movement

Social Gospel Movement

cities in the New South

New South: Cities

history of America 1877-1900 | art

Culture: Art

New South | rural areas

New South: Rural Areas

history of America 1877-1900 | culture

Culture

society in the New South

Society: New South

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history of America 1877-1900 | learning

Culture: Learning

history of America 1877-1900 | literature

Culture: Literature

history of America 1877-1900 | philosophy

Culture: Philosophy

Gospel of Wealth

Philosophy: Gospel of Wealth

history of America 1877-1900 | scence and technology

Culture: Science and Technology

Up to Index

history of America 1877-1900 | power

Power

history of America 1877-1900 | presidents

Power: Presidents

Election of 1896

Power: Election of 1896

political parties | Gilded Age

Power: Political Parties

history of America 1877-1900 | Congress

Power: Congress

history of America 1877-1900 | legislation

Congress: Legislation

Up to Index

issues | Gilded Age

Power: Issues

civil service | Gilded Age

Issues: Civil Service

business and industry | Gilded Age

Issues: Business and Industry

currency | Gilded Age

Issues: Currency

history of America 1877-1900 | local politics

Power: Local Politics

history of America 1877-1900 | local politics | issues

Local Politics: Issues

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history of America 1877-1900 | local politics | ward bosses

Local Politics: Ward Bosses

history of America 1877-1900 | rural politics

Power: Rural Politics

history of America 1877-1900 | foreign affairs

Power: Foreign Affairs

history of America 1877-1900 | economy

Economy

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | agriculture

Economy: Agriculture

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | agriculture | the farm

Agriculture: The Farm

Up to Index

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | agriculture | innovations

Agriculture: Innovations

agriculture | Great Plains

Great Plains

Great Plains | settlement boom

Great Plains: Settlement Boom

Great Plains | challenges

Great Plains: Challenges

California | Gilded Age

Economy: California

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | industry

Economy: Industry

Up to Index

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | natural resources

Economy: Natural Resources

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | ranching

Economy: Ranching

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | trade

Economy: Trade

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | rural discontent

Economy: Rural Discontent

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | farmers' alliances

Economy: Farmers’ Alliances

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | capitalism

Economy: Capitalism

Up to Index

Depression of 1893

Economy: Depression of 1893

Social Darwinism

Economy: Social Darwinism

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | trusts

Economy: Trusts

Muckrakers

Economy: Muckrakers

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | capitalism and churches

Capitalism: Churches

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | labor

Economy: Labor

Up to Index

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | artisans and skilled workers

Labor: Artisans and Skilled Workers

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | factory system

Economy: Factory System

digital history of America 1877-1900 |  economy | workers

Factory System: Workers

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | labor unions

Labor: Unions

American Federation of Labor

Unions: American Federation of Labor

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | labor | child labor

Labor: Child Labor

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | labor | women

Labor: Women

history of America 1877-1900 | economy | labor | immigrants

Labor: Immigrants

Up to Index

Samples



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