Modern Middle East


History of the Modern Middle East


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Perspective


Much of the modern history of the Middle East came with the discovery of oil, first in Persia in 1908 and later in Saudi Arabia (in 1938) and the other Persian Gulf states and also in Libya and Algeria. The West came to depend on Middle Eastern oil and the decline of British influence led to a power vacuum that attracted American influence.

During the 1920s through the 1940s, Syria and Egypt moved towards independence. The British, the French, and the Soviet Union left the Middle East during and after World War II. The Arab-Israeli conflict in Palestine led to the United Nations’ plan to partition Palestine. Against this background of Cold War, the Middle East saw the rise of pan-Arabism. The departure of the European powers, the establishment of Israel, the out-sized importance of the oil industry all contributed to the making of the modern Middle East. In most countries, the growth of market economies was stifled by politics, corruption and cronyism, by squandering great sums on arms and showcase projects, and by near-complete dependence on oil revenues. The wealthiest states are the small oil-rich countries of the Persian Gulf: Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates. 

The Middle East was rocked by the 1967 Six-Day War the 1970s energy crisis that began with the 1973 OPEC oil embargo in response to U.S. support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War. The Saudi-led popularization of Salafism/Wahhabism coincided with the 1978-79 Iranian Revolution to promote the increasing rise of Islamism. The fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 changed the focus from from the Cold War to a War on Terror. Starting in the early 2010s, the Arab Spring brought major protests, uprisings, and revolutions to several Middle Eastern and north African countries, some of which proved preliminary to the ISIS uprising.


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Index


Modern Middle East Index | Power: IdeologyInteractionPolitical DevelopmentProgressionArab-Israeli ConflictWorld War I | Afghanistan: Power | Algeria: Power | Egypt: PowerMuslim BrotherhoodWafd PartyNasserSadat | Iran: Power: Constitutional RevolutionReza KhanMossadeqPahlaviIslamic Revolution | Iraq: Saddam Hussein | Israel: Power | Jordan | Lebanon | Pakistan: Power | Saudi Arabia: PowerEconomy | Syria | Turkey: Power: GovernanceAbdul Hamid IIYoung Turk RevolutionTanzimatAtaturk


history of the Modern Middle East

Modern Middle East: Index

history of the Modern Middle East | Power

Power

history of the Modern Middle East | ideology

Power: Ideology

history of the Modern Middle East | interaction

Power: Interaction

history of the Modern Middle East | political development

Power: Political Development

history of the Modern Middle East | progression of power

Power: Progression

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history of the Modern Middle East | Arab-Israeli Conflict

Power: Arab-Israeli Conflict

history of the Modern Middle East | World War I

Power: World War I


Afghanistan


history of the Modern Middle East | Afghanistan

Afghanistan: Index


Algeria


history of the Modern Middle East | Algeria

Algeria: Index

history of the Modern Middle East | Algeria | power

Power

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Egypt


history of the Modern Middle East | Egypt

Egypt: Index

history of the Modern Middle East | Egypt | power

Power

history of the Modern Middle East | Egypt |Muslim Brotherhood

Power: Muslim Brotherhood

history of the Modern Middle East | Wafd Party

Power: Wafd Party

history of the Modern Middle East | Egypt | Nasser

Power: Nasser

history of the Modern Middle East | Egypt | Sadat

Power: Sadat

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Iran


history of the Modern Middle East | Iran

Iran: Index

history of the Modern Middle East | Iran | power

Power

history of the Modern Middle East | Iran | Constitutional Revolution

Power: Constitutional Revolution

history of the Modern Middle East | Iran | Reza Khan

Power: Reza Khan

history of the Modern Middle East | Iran | Mossadeq

Power: Mossadeq

history of the Modern Middle East | Iran | Pahlavi

Power: Pahlavi

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history of the Modern Middle East | Iran | Islamist Revolution

Power: Islamist Revolution


Iraq


history of the Modern Middle East | Iraq

Iraq: Index

history of the Modern Middle East | Iraq | Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein


Israel


history of the Modern Middle East | Israel

Israel: Index


history of the Modern Middle East | Israel | power

Power


Jordan


history of the Modern Middle East | Jordan

Jordan

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Lebanon


history of the Modern Middle East
 | Lebanon

Lebanon


Pakistan


history of the Modern Middle East |  Pakistan

Pakistan: Index

history of the Modern Middle East | Pakistan | power

Power


Palestine


history of the Modern Middle East | Palestine

Palestine: Index

history of the Modern Middle East | Palestine | power

Power


Saudi Arabia



history of the Modern Middle East | Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia: Index

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history of the Modern Middle East |  Saudi Arabia | power

Power

history of the Modern Middle East | Saudi Arabia | economy

Economy


Syria


history of the Modern Middle East | Syria

Syria: Index


Turkey


history of the Modern Middle East | Turkey

Turkey: Index

history of the Modern Middle East | Turkey | power

Power

history of the Modern Middle East | Turkey | governance

Power: Governance

history of the Modern Middle East | Turkey | Abdul Hamid II

Power: Abdul Hamid II

history of the Modern Middle East | Turkey | Young Turk Revolution

Power: Young Turk Revolution

history of the Modern Middle East | Turkey | Tanzimat

Power: Tanzimat

history of the Modern Middle East | Turkey | Ataturk

Power: Ataturk

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Samples



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