China


History of China



Experience the History of China with WisdomMaps: The Future of the Past!


Perspective


The history of China is that of one of the world’s oldest civilizations and one of its cradles of civilization. Neolithic civilizations arose at various centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River as early as 8,000 years ago. Written records such as the Book of Documents mention and describe a Xia dynasty (2070–1600 BCE) that ruled in the Yellow River valley, the cradle of Chinese civilization. These Neolithic civilizations arose millennia before the Shang, China’s first historical dynasty.

The Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC) succeeded the Shang, and used the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to support their rule. But the Zhou government weakened from internal pressures and barbarian predations in the 8th century BC, and the country eventually disintegrated into smaller states during the Spring and Autumn period. As a result, these states fought with one another throughout the following Warring States period, and much of traditional Chinese culture first developed during those troubled times.

In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang conquered the various warring states and established himself as Huangdi or “emperor” of the Qin. From this came the beginnings of China’s empire. However, his oppressive rule was replaced by the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD). The Han and the dynasties that followed governed in ways  that enabled the emperor to rule China’s enormous territories directly. In consequence, for the more than 2,000 years leading up to the advent of the Chinese republic in 1912, government was handled by a special elite of scholar-officials, well-versed in calligraphy, history, literature, and philosophy. They were carefully selected through rigorous examinations that were available to all to take.

Between periods of political unity and peace, there were times of war and failed statehood. As one example among many, the Chinese Civil War the 20th century raged for more than 20 years before China regained its footing in 1949. This was complicated by the threat from the “barbarians from beyond the Wall”, though these steppe peoples were assimilated into the mainstream Chinese culture and population. Between eras of fractured kingdoms and warlords, Chinese dynasties absorbed and ruled parts or all of China as far away as Xinjiang, Tibet and Inner Mongolia. Traditional culture, in part influenced by such cultural assimilation and foreign contact, underpins  the modern culture of China.

China’s last dynasty, the Qing (1644–1912), was replaced by the Republic of China (ROC) in 1912, and then by the Peoples’ Republic of China (PRC) under Mao Zedong in 1949. With this, the government of the Republic of China fled to Taiwan in 1949, and since then, both the PRC and the ROC claim to be the sole legitimate government of China. This has resulted in an ongoing dispute even after the United Nations recognized the PRC as China’s sole government in 1971. Hong Kong and Macau became sovereign Chinese territories in 1997 and 1999, respectively.


sample map


Here’s a look…



… and here’s a look at what you’re missing. 😕 Subscribe now for access to the entire WisdomMaps collection: more than 3,000 mind maps on all the world’s history and cultures. It’s the best education you’ve never had!


We Invite You to Visit Our Companion Site HawaiiInside.Info • Hawaii’s Inside Story!


Index

China Index | Ancient China: SocietyOriginsEnvironmentReligion | Xia Dynasty: SocietyOriginsFounding Myths | Shang Dynasty: SocietyCultureMagicScience and TechnologyReligionPower | Zhou Dynasty: SocietyCulturePhilosophyYang ZhuConfucius: BackgroundConcernsPoliticsConfucianism: Confucian ClassicsMoralityThe Way of the Higher ManLegacyLegalismDaoismMencius: BackgroundBeliefsPoliticsMo-TzuXunziZhuangzi | PowerRiseFeudal States Warring States EraDeclineEconomy | Qin DynastyPowerLord ShangKing ZhengQin Shi Huangdi Decline | Han Dynasty: SocietyCulturePhilosophyScholarshipScience and TechnologyBuddhismPowerFormer Han DynastyGaozuHan WudiWang MangLater Han Dynasty Decline | Economy | Jin and Northern Wei Dynasties | Sui Dynasty | T’ang Dynasty: SocietyCultureLiteratureScholarshipSculptureScience and Technology | BuddhismPowerXuanzongDeclineEconomy | Song Dynasty: SocietyCultureScience and TechnologyPowerEconomyTrade | Mongol Empire: SocietyPowerGovernanceGenghis KhanKublai KhanFragmentation of the EmpireTurkic EmpireEconomy | Yuan Dynasty: SocietyCulturePowerEconomy | Ming Dynasty: SocietyCultureArtLiteratureScholarshipReligionPowerHongwuYongleExpansionNaval ExpeditionsDeclineEconomy | Qing Dynasty: SocietyCulturePowerManchusQianlongKangxiDeclineThe WestOpium WarsRevoltCixiLoss of TerritorySino-Japanese WarEconomy: Trade | Modern China: SocietyCulturePowerRevolution of 1911Cultural MovementsPolitical MovementsMay Fourth MovementRepublic of China: GovernanceCivil WarJapanManchukuoWar with JapanDefeat of JapanChinese Communist Party: ConsolidationRiseIndustrializationMao ZedongGreat Leap ForwardCultural RevolutionZhou EnlaiDeng XiaopingEconomyHong KongTaiwan



China: Index


Ancient China


Ancient China

Society

Society: Origins

Society: Environment

Religion

Up to Index


Xia Dynasty


Xia Dynasty: Index

Society

Society: Origins

Society: Founding Myths


Shang Dynasty


Shang Dynasty: Index

Society

Up to Index

Culture

Magic

Science and Technology

Written Language

Religion

Power

Up to Index


Zhou Dynasty


Zhou Dynasty: Index

Society

Culture

Philosophy

Yang Zhu

Confucius

Up to Index

Confucius: Background

Concerns

Politics

Confucianism: Index

Confucian Classics

Morality

Up to Index

The Way of the Higher Man

Legacy

Legalism

Daoism

Mencius

Background

Up to Index

Beliefs

Politics

Mo-tzu

Xun-tzu

Zhuang-tzu

Zhou Dynasty: Power

Up to Index

Rise

Feudal States

Warring States Era

Decline

Economy


Qin Dynasty


Qin Dynasty: Index

Up to Index

Power

Qin Shihuangdi

Lord Shang

King Zheng

Decline


Han Dynasty


Han Dynasty: Index

Up to Index

Society

Culture

Philosophy

Scholarship

Science and Technology

Buddhism

Up to Index

Power

Former Han Dynasty

Gao-tzu

Han Wudi

Wang Mang

Later Han Dynasty

Up to Index

Decline

Economy


Jin and Northern Wei Dynasties


Jin and Northern Wei Dynasties


Sui Dynasty


Sui Dynasty


T’ang Dynasty


T’ang Dynasty: Index

Society

Up to Index


Culture

Literature

Scholarship

Science and Technology

Sculpture

Buddhism

Up to Index

Power

Xuanzong

Decline

Economy


Song Dynasty


Song Dynasty: Index


Society

Up to Index

Culture

Science and Technology

Power

Economy

Trade


Mongol Empire


Mongol Empire

Up to Index

Society

Power

Governance

Genghis Khan

Kublai Khan

Fragmentation of the Empire

Up to Index

Turkic Empire

Economy


Yuan Dynasty


Yuan Dynasty: Index

Society

Culture

Power

Up to Index

Economy


Ming Dynasty


Ming Dynasty: Index

Society

Culture

Art

Literature

Up to Index

Scholarship

Religion

Power

Hongwu

Yongle

Yongle: Expansion

Up to Index

Yongle: Naval Expeditions

Decline

Economy


Qing Dynasty


Qing Dynasty: Index


Society

Culture

Up to Index

Power

Manchus

Qianlong

Kangxi

Decline

The West

Up to Index

Opium Wars

Revolt

Cixi

Loss of Territory

Sino-Japanese War

Economy

Up to Index

Trade


Modern China


Modern China: Index

Society

Culture


Power

Power: Revolution of 1911

Up to Index

Revolution of 1911: Cultural Movements

Revolution of 1911: Political Movements

Political Movements: May Fourth Movement

Power: Republic of China

Republic of China: Governance

Power: Civil War

Up to Index

Civil War: Japan

Japan: Manchukuo

Japan: War

War: Defeat of Japan

Power: Chinese Communist Party

Chinese Communist Party: Consolidation

Up to Index

Chinese Communist Party: Rise

Chinese Communist Party: Industrialization

Power: Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong: Great Leap Forward

Mao Zedong: Cultural Revolution

Power: Zhou Enlai


Power: Deng Xiaoping

Economy

Hong Kong

Taiwan

Up to Index

Samples


Loading…

Exit mobile version
%%footer%%