Classical Era of Ancient Greece


History of the Classical Era of Ancient Greece



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Perspective


The Classical Era of ancient Greece existed in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE, from the fall of the last Athenian tyrant in 510 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. It followed the Greek Dark Ages and Archaic period and was followed by the Hellenistic kingdoms created by Alexander. Ancient Greece gained increased freedom from the Persian Empire, and democratic Athens flourished at its the peak. But the Peloponnesian Wars and the expansion of Macedonia under Philip II kept Greece in turmoil. In terms of art, architecture, and culture, the Classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Much of its early politics, artistry in architecture and sculpture, its scientific thought, its theatre and literature, and its philosophy was foundational for Western civilization, and went on to have a powerful influence on the later Roman Empire. The Classical era ended when Philip II unified the Greek world against the common enemy of the Persian Empire, which was conquered a few years later by Alexander.


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Index

Classical Era IndexCultureArtsArchitecture: AcropolisAtticaTemple of ZeusErechtheionLysippus of SikyonMausoleum of MausolusParthenonPraxitelesSkopasTemples: Fourth CenturyFifth CenturyThird Temple of Artemis | Reconstruction of Athens | Drama: Aeschylus: Plays | Aristophanes: Comic DramaPlaysRadicalsAthenian DramaComedyDionysian Theatre: ActingAudiencesPerformancesTheaters | Euripides: The PhilosopherPlays A-EPlays F – ZExile | Sophocles: PlaysTragedy: Choruses | Prime MoversSourcesLiteratureComedyHistoriography: HerodotusThucydidesXenophonOdesMusicDanceInstruments | Painting: Fourth CenturyPolygnotus of Thasos | PhilosophyEarly Philosophy: Aristotle: The PhilosopherThe TeacherThe Statesman | Plato: The AcademyBeliefsThe ArtistThe Lawmaker The MetaphysicistThe MoralistThe Utopian | Socrates: The PhilosopherThe TeacherDeath | Philosophy and Religion: EmpedoclesIdealistsMaterialistsPythagorasSophism: AthensHippias of ElisProtagorasLegacy | Philosophy and Science: ArchytasDioclesEudoxusGeographyHeraclides of Pontus | Pottery: Vases | Rhetoric: Athenian OratorsIsocrates: Discourses | Apex | Politicians | Sculpture: Fifth Century BCE and Older Fourth Century | Science and Technology: Prime Movers Astronomy: Anaxagoras | Earth Sciences | Mathematics: ArithmeticGeometryMedicineAnatomy and PhysiologyHippocratesSecular Medicine Surgery


Classical Era: Index

Culture

Culture: Arts


Architecture


Architecture: Attica

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Architecture: Erechtheion

Architecture: Lysippus of Sikyon

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Architecture: Temples

Temples: Fifth Century BCE

Temples: Fourth Century BCE

Temples: Third Temple of Artemis

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Drama


Culture: Drama

Aeschylus: Plays

Drama: Aristophanes

Aristophanes: Comic Drama

Aristophanes: Plays

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Aristophanes: Radicals

Drama: Athenian Drama

Drama: Comedy

Dionysian Theatre: Acting

Dionysian Theatre: Audiences

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Dionysian Theatre: Performances

Dionysian Theatre: Theaters

Drama: Euripides

Euripides: The Philosopher

Euripides: Plays A – E

Euripides: Plays F – Z

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Euripides: Exile

Drama: Sophocles

Sophocles: Plays

Drama: Tragedy

Tragedy: Choruses

Tragedy: Prime Movers

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Tragedy: Sources


Literature


Culture: Literature

Literature: Comedy

Literature: Historiography

Historiography: Herodotus

Historiography: Thucydides

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Historiography: Xenophon


Music


Culture: Music

Music: Dance

Music: Instruments


Painting


Culture: Painting

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Painting: Fourth Century BCE

Painting: Polygnotus of Thasos


Philosophy


Culture: Philosophy

Philosophy: Early

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Aristotle: The Teacher

Philosophy: Plato

Plato: The Academy

Plato: Beliefs

Plato: The Artist

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Plato: The Lawmaker

Plato: The Metaphysicist

Plato: The Moralist

Plato: The Utopian

Socrates: The Philosopher

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Socrates: The Teacher

Socrates: Death

Philosophy: Philosophy and Religion

Philosophy and Religion: Idealists

Philosophy and Religion: Materialists

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Philosophy and Religion: Pythagoras

Philosophy and Religion: Sophism

Sophism: Athens

Sophism: Hippias of Elis

Sophism: Protagoras

Sophism: Legacy

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Philosophy and Science

Philosophy and Science: Archytas

Philosophy and Science: Diocles

Philosophy and Science: Geography

Philosophy and Science: Heraclides of Pontus

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Pottery


Culture: Pottery

Pottery: Vases


Rhetoric


Culture: Rhetoric

Rhetoric: Athenian Orators

Rhetoric: Isocrates

Isocrates: Discourses

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Rhetoric: Apex

Rhetoric: Politicians


Sculpture


Culture: Sculpture

Sculpture: Fifth Century BCE and Older

Sculpture: Fourth Century BCE


Science and Technology


Culture: Science and Technology

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Science and Technology: Prime Movers

Science and Technology: Astronomy

Astronomy: Anaxagoras

Science and Technology: Earth Sciences

Science and Technology: Mathematics

Mathematics: Arithmetic

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Medicine: Anatomy and Physiology

Medicine: Hippocrates

Medicine: Secular Medicine

Medicine: Surgery

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Samples


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